Operation of the turbo
The function of a turbo is basically achieve the higher air mixture (if injected) or mixing (in case of carburetor) in the cylinder, when the intake valve is open, breaking into the cylinder. Typically, an engine is atmospheric, namely, that the air inlet takes place by aspiration of the piston itself.
The primary mission of the turbo is to compress the air before they enter so that the mass of air is admitted to the same volume increases. Logically the air increases the amount of fuel increased the greatest power Therewith.
Formerly the turbo was driven by the timing belt minus power the vehicle. Nowadays, the output of the exhaust gases leaving prey at high speed to spin the turbine (a). At the other end of the shaft (see drawing) the centrifugal compressor is (b) which is responsible for raising the pressure in the intake passage and compressing air filter.
If the engine revs increase, Exhaust gases exit to higher speed and the turbo "blows" more, being more effective. Valve is very important (2) which is responsible for limiting the pressure. It is increasingly common to use variable turbo (variation of turbine blades) for it to be effective in both low-and high-rpm.
The heat exchanger air / air (Intercooler) is as radiator water and is responsible for lowering the temperature of the intake air volume that is smaller and fits over the cylinder number.
Comparing an engine with the same power but one with turbo and other atmospheric, The turbocharged engine has a different behavior. They are cars with more aggressive and better throttle response, but the downside is the greatest suffering of mechanical parts due to temperature increase.
Thanks to the displacement turbo cars are increasingly getting smaller and less power consumption best.
Currently the turbo is being widely used, especially in diesel engines with technology "common rail" (common rail injectors), they are outselling gasoline engines.